Over the past decade, the state of Indiana has substantially increased its investment in early childhood care and education (ECCE). In addition to federal funding and programs such as Head Start and Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) vouchers, Indiana has also invested state funds and time in expanding access to high quality preschool for young children from low income backgrounds through the On My Way Preschool program and enhancing the quality of ECCE programs through the Paths to Quality (PTQ) rating system. These efforts have made substantial improvements in the overall quality and access to ECCE services in many counties; however, there is still a need to further support this system as there are a number of gaps in data and services. In response to this need, and to actively support the state’s continued progress in service for young children and their families, Indiana recently applied for and was awarded a federal Preschool Development Grant (PDG). As a central step in this process, Purdue University was hired to conduct an Indiana ECCE Needs Assessment.